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Wound healing- A proper care is required

Posted on August 9, 2011 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (1)

Wounds are the most common cases presented in any veterinary establishment. Wound means any breach in the continuity of the skin and wound healing is restoration in the continuity. The process involves cell regeneration, cell proliferation and collagen production.

A wound can be covered temporarily with bandage until specialized veterinary care is received to avoid gross contamination and mutilation of the area. Generally the area of wound is cleaned, lavaged and hair around the wound should be clipped and shaved, followed be some antiseptic dressing. The dirty or contaminated wounds should not be closed and open drainage is required. In some cases, dressing is done but a drain is kept to allow escape of fluid coming out if the gap is too big, suturing is required, but in some cases with, tissue heals by itself whereas some wounds require delayed suturing. Sometimes necrosed (dead) tissue is present which has to be removed and the edges are freshened (debridement) for healthy healing.

In haemorrhagic wounds the first step is to arrest the bleeding. Similarly in fracture wounds (open fractures), anatomical reconstruction and reduction of fracture and then wound closure should be done. In case of maggoted wounds, which occur by attack of blow flies or by eggs laid by flies on any open wound has to be treated accordingly i.e. removal of maggots. This can be done by applying tincture turpentine locally, which will irritate the maggots and they will come out or apply any spray or ointment containing insecticidal compounds (BHC). In case of burn wounds, the fluid therapy of the patient is of utmost importance as many electrolytes are lost from weeping burn surface along with local application of emollient and antiseptic dressing (e.g. sulphacetamide ointments). Dog bite wounds should be attended with special precaution. Wearing of gloves is essential by anyone who handles the dog. First of all antirabies vaccination (post bite, Day 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60) should be done. A thorough washing of area should be done followed by antiseptic dressing. It should not be sutured as is generally contaminated. Similarly, in all contaminated wounds, suturing is delayed. In case of gunshot wounds, the cartridge has to be removed the position of which can be ascertained by taking radiograph. In case of severe tissue loss, tissue grafting is needed and is a really helpful.

*The line of treatment wounds varies with the cause, type and duration of wound.

In spite of a lot of available options, many a times there is delay in the wound healing or there is formation of an ulcerating wound. Many of the systemic/endogenous and exogenous/environmental factors are involved which can affect the rate of wound healing and strength of the healed tissue.

Anaemia: In anaemia the haemoglobin is less so the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is reduced. Oxygen is required for the cells for respiration the reduction of which leads to delayed wound healing.

Hypoproteinaemia: Wound healing is a process of protein synthesis; less of the protein may lead to delayed wound healing and decreased strength. Methionine and cysteine prevents delayed wound healing and thus be incorporated in diet.

Uraemia: increased blood urea nitrogen delays wound healing. Uraemia causes slow granulation tissue formation and poor quality collagen, the tissue so formed is thus not so strong.

Dehydration and odema: These two factors are involved in wound healing and excess of any of these two can cause a delayed healing.

Diabetes/blood sugar: More of the sugar in the blood has been seen in the humans have seen to delay the wound healing and may be involved in dogs also.

Thyroid: Imbalances in the normal values of thyroid hormone affects wound healing and should be ruled out in case of delayed wound healing.

Infection: Infection local or systemic will delay the wound healing. A good antiseptic dressing should be applied and changed regularly. A systemic antibiotic should be selected based on the type of infection for which antibiotic sensitivity test is helpful.

*A complete blood testing is thus recommended in cases of long standing wounds or ulcerated wounds like blood haemoglobin, total protein, urea nitrogen fasting blood sugar, thyroid and antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST).

Oxygen tension: Oxygen is required for every cell and sometimes a very tight bandage will reduce blood flow to the affected area. So while applying bandage, just observe that your finger can go between skin and bandage but at the same time it should not be too loose.

Temperature: Maximum strength of the healed tissue is attained at 30o C. so it is not good to keep your dog at very less temperature (in Air conditioner) or very high temperature (very hot environment) otherwise the collagen formed will be not very strong.

Cleaning agent: Owners should keep in their mind that the skin of dogs and human are different. The floors at which the dogs are kept are occasionally cleaned with phenol (Phenyl) which is irritating to the dogs and many a times allergic. In addition to this many a times dog owners apply Dettol or Savlon or Human Shampoos to clean their dogs, it is to inform them that you are actually harming your dog. Don’t apply it on your dog as its skin is different from human skin. Apply betadine or just normal saline to clean the wound. You are actually causing harm to your dog. One more thing that I want to tell is about the shampoos being used on the dogs; please use only dog shampoos and not the human ones.

Vitamin E and Zinc: If present in excess, vitamin E will delay wound healing, by slowing collagen formation so should not be given in excess to the dogs. Zinc is required in moderate amount for normal wound healing as it helps in cellular proliferation however, in excess zinc delays wound healing by inhibiting macrophage function (cells involved in combating infection).

Corticosteroid: Dogs are given corticosteroid for their anti inflammatory action but they markedly inhibit growth of the blood vessels and epithelial cells of the affected area. They can thus complicate the wound healing instead of helping. For anti-inflammatory action other suitable drugs can be used, if required (e.g. Serratiopeptidase).

Anticancer drugs: These drugs are cytotoxic (toxic to the cells) and directly affecting all the developing and growing cells of the body and should not be given, until very necessary.

Vitamin C: It is required for the formation of collagen. God quality collagen provides strength to the healing tissue. Vitamin C can be given easily through oral route as palatable tablets are available.

Drugs: Some of the dogs are allergic to some drugs like amino glycosides group of antibiotics and a delay in wound healing is observed, a change of antibiotic may help.

In addition drugs like Aspirin, phenyl-butazone have also been reported to decrease healing.

*History is very important as it can help in identification and removal of involved agent.

Self mutilation: Many a times the dog licks the wounds. They damage the bandage and remove dressing. Here neck collar and Elizabethian collars (http://innovationindia.weebly.com, http://innovationindia.webs.com) can be very useful as they will restrict the head movement and prevent licking and self mutilation of the area.

Constant irritation: Decubital ulcers or pressure sores develop and do not heal in cases of recumbency in certain diseases (Paralysis, Hind quarter weakness) due to which the wound cannot heal. The pet should be encouraged to stand and if not possible rehabilitation aid should be provided to the animal. Slings can be very useful and may help dog to stand whereas in long standing cases wheel chair/wheel cart (http://innovationindia.weebly.com, http://innovationindia.webs.com) should be provided as animal can stand and move and the wound dressing can be done very easily. In addition, it will remove constant pressure of dogs own body weight and irritation due to recumbency.

Immobility: Sometimes the wound is near or at the joint which causes constant movement and thus healed tissue will rupture again and again. For this the area should be immobilized, at the same time dressing of the area is also very important, so a splint with a window can be applied for better outcome. Various fore leg and hind leg splints are available which can be beneficial for the pet (http://innovationindia.weebly.com, http://innovationindia.webs.com).

*Rehabilitation of animal should be instituted as early as possible as it enhances the rate of recovery, wound healing and animal well being.

 

About Author

Dr. Surbhi Tyagi (PhD  Surgery)

Technical Advisor

Awareness Campaign Cell

Innovation India

[email protected]

http://innovationindia.webs.com



 


Veterinary Rehabilitation- Jackpot of alternatives by Innovation India (Minimize the sufferings of our beloved pets)

Posted on May 23, 2010 at 8:28 AM Comments comments (3)

There was a day when injured pets were "no good anymore." When an animal was hurt, became lame or incontinent, or was for any reason no longer wanted, they were put down, but not anymore because at Innovation India we have come up with a jackpot of alternatives to minimize the sufferings of your beloved pet. No doubt it is the most difficult moment for pet owner as well as for veterinarian to go for mercy killing (euthanasia) of pet. Most of these mercy killings are undertaken due to less availability of equipments and facilities in veterinary profession as compared to highly specialized human medical sciences at least in India. One might wonder why it is so. Some of the major factors are less paying capacity of pet owners and reluctance on the part of animal welfare standards in India. At home, during ailment, preoperative, operative and postoperative requirements of pets are very different from that of humans. Special care, attention, equipments and apparatus are required by them for healthy living. Less availability of specially designed equipments and apparatuses for pets imparts low health standards and operative complications in veterinary patients. Keeping in view the above background, an idea was generated in the year 2006 to establish Veterinary Rehabilitation Services in India by a core group team of Veterinarians and Rehabilitation experts. Whole hearted devotion and work by this core group on various aspects of R&D, manufacturing, finance and marketing resulted in birth of a company Innovation India in the year 2009.

 

Innovation India has been established with a clear cut mandate to minimize the suffering of animals and bringing the veterinary markets and products, manufactures, brands, technologies and applications together. Our vision is to become the preferred supplier and business partner in the veterinary world. Our mission is to produce, market, sell and distribute products that improve animal well-being and help those who work with animals to better working conditions. Our core competency is to supply innovative solutions and products with uncompromising service, whereby we create unique market access and active recommendations from opinion leaders and customers. Presently we are providing the best possible rehabilitation aids like wheel carts, slings, artificial limbs, squeeze cage, splints, braces and pet vests etc. for disabled pets at nominal costs elsewhere in India. Close association with NGO’s, Teaching Professors, Research Scientists, Research Scholars, Veterinary Practitioners, Rehabilitation Specialists, Dog Breeders and Pet Owners under the leadership of Innovation India is playing a vital role in improvising animal welfare standards in India.

The most common reaction we get from people when they hear about us is "If only I had known about you before I put my dog to sleep..." We need to reach people. We need to tell them that there are alternatives and Veterinary rehabilitation is full of alternatives. Rehabilitation means to restore ability. Rehabilitation science is very old and well established in human medicine but it is much underutilized in veterinary, especially in India. Innovation India with the help of its affiliates and subsidiaries, want to help pet animals to restore their ability to live, improve their life style and well being, by providing rehabilitation aids and other accessories required by them, in India itself.

 

A large pet population in India is suffering from limb/leg affections. It is a routine case in a pet clinic or veterinary hospital. Hind quarter weakness and paralysis can occur due to various causes like accident, old age, trauma, neoplasia, tick paralysis, malnutrition, obesity, neurological and degenerative diseases etc. Paralysis leads to recumbency and animal cannot lift itself on limbs. Due to the multiple etiology of the problem, many a times a definitive treatment is not possible, but rehabilitation science has definite answer for such animals. Rehabilitation aids like slings and wheel carts if provided to affected animals at proper time, such worse condition and complications can be prevented. We, at Innovation India are working to help such animals. Similarly artificial limbs for amputation cases, splints and external fixatures for fracture cases, Neck collars and Elizabethan collars for post surgical management, squeeze cages for humane examination of aggressive pets and many more rehabilitation aids have been already developed and launched by Innovation India.

It is a high time now that we look for such available options for the pets. Rehabilitation aids if required by the animals is must and every pet has a right to get them and live their life in a better way. We at Innovation India want to help these speechless animals, who are rendering their services to the mankind since time immemorial. In addition, not much people know about rehabilitation of animals and don’t know if such aids are available for the animals. People are unaware of the fact that these aids act as a catalyst for recovery and can do wonders in hopeless cases. To overcome this lack of awareness, we are on a nationwide campaign by making network with a number of leading Veterinary Practitioners, NGOs, Research Institutions, Veterinary hospitals and Animal Welfare Societies. With our effort and their help, we are providing our services to the needy animals elsewhere in India. We thanks for the help rendered by Dogs & Pups, for providing a platform to reach a huge quantum of concerned people. Now people in India have also started realizing the need of rehabilitation and contacting us for the help. We are becoming more aware of the sacredness of all life. We are beginning to understand the power of the loving bond that is created when one living thing cares for another. Our pets have become family members and deserve to be loved, respected, and cherished. We are available online at http://innovationindia.webs.com through which one can avail the facilities rendered by us. Further queries can be addressed at;

 

INNOVATION INDIA 

http://innovationindia.webs.com

Opp- ITS Dental College, NH-58

Asalatnagar, Dist- Ghaziabad, (U.P)- 201 206

09873995076, 09873995078

[email protected] , [email protected]

So next time you see an animal limping or paralyzed or dragging itself or with any other problem, think of some idea, think of innovation, think of us. At Innovation India, we are there to help you and to help these wonderful creatures, so called as the best companion of humans.

Thanks!!!

Dog sudden hind leg weakness - Add your views

Posted on March 12, 2010 at 10:50 AM Comments comments (2)

Sudden occurrence of hind leg weakness paralysis in dogs is among major queries made by pet lovers. The situation may arise from various causes. One should understand one fact that once there is paralysis of a part of the body animal loses control over it. If the body part under paralysis are legs than pet find itself unable to move from one place to the other. Situation does not end here it leads to the initiation of various vicious cycles of muscle degeneration in leg muscles. Pet slowly and slowly loses muscle strength and after certain period the condition become almost irreversible. One should concentrate on the fact that even if found underlying cause recovery in such cases usually takes time. Allopath alone cannot answer in such cases; assistance from well proofed sciences like Rehabilitation is a better answer to such problems. It is always essential to maintain blood circulation in the affected part to revive the strength of the muscles. Major pity is that dog hind leg weakness or paralysis is among major causes leading to euthanasia in pet animal veterinary practice in developing countries like India .Dog hind leg weakness may arise from multiple etiologies starting from simple trauma to more severe problems like degenerative myelopathy. One should be clear about type of first aid required by such dog. If there is no spinal injury, immediate arrangement for some ambulation aid like wheelchair dog cart must be provided to the pet. It will not only bring pet and its owner out of mental trauma but also increase chances of recovery to much greater percentage.