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Posted on May 18, 2013 at 8:55 AM Comments comments (3)


Innomuzzle are best protective device for safe examination and enhanced protection. These are provided with inner soft lining to provide extra comfort to your beloved pet.

adjustable muzzle

Adjustable Innomuzzle has extra advantage of sure shot fitting to your pet. The adjustable snout circumference can greatly be reduced or extended.



Muzzle is a protective aid used to fasten around snout of pet dog, so that veterinary doctor can examine and administer drugs safely. Wearing muzzle become essential in untrained or aggressive pet dogs, however muzzle should always be applied as a safety measure. Muzzle are more frequently applied when veterinary doctor has to examine areas near to mouth of pet dog. muzzle provide necessary safety of bieng not bitten by pet dog when examining them.

Personal Muzzle

As we have our personal toothbrush, towel etc., same thing applies to utility aids for our beloved pet dogs. The worst practice is usage of single muzzle on number of pet dogs while examining them. It increases chances of aquiring contagious disease to your beloved pet dog. thus it become the duty of every owner to have personalized muzzle for thier pet dog. It not only safegaurd your beloved pet but also save pet dogs of other owners.

Innomuzzle features

Two type of quality muzzle are bieng manufactured by Innovation India. these are fix and adjustable type exclusively prepared from high quality durable cotton fabric and cushioned inside to provide extra comfort to your beloved pet dog.



Applying muzzle to your pet dog

Regardless of which type of muzzle is used, the dog should be acclimated to it before use. This can easily be accomplished by pairing food with the muzzle. For the nylon muzzle, stick a small treat through the bottom and let the dog place his nose into the muzzle to take the treat. Repeat a few times, and as the dog becomes more comfortable, gradually begin to place the muzzle on the dog, using incremental steps. For example, dog takes treat, hold for five seconds, release; as dog becomes comfortable, dog takes treat, move muzzle back over dog's muzzle, release; next step, bring straps up behind ears, release; eventually, as dog becomes comfortable, attach straps, feed through muzzle, release.

Allergies & Atopy in Dogs

Posted on October 5, 2012 at 2:55 AM Comments comments (4)

Veterinarians who limit their practice to dogs and cats see a lot of skin problems. There are numerous conditions that cause problems with a dog or cat's skin, but the most common, by far, is allergies.

Symptoms of allergies

 Dogs with allergies may show the following symptoms:

  • Chewing on feet
  • Rubbing the face on the carpet
  • Scratching the body
  • Recurrent ear infections
  • Hair loss
  • Mutilated skin

 A dog who is allergic to something will show it through skin problems and itching, i.e., pruritus. It may seem logical that if a dog is allergic to something he inhales (atopy) like certain pollen grains, he will have a runny nose; if he is allergic to something he eats (food allergy) such as beef, he may vomit; or if allergic to an insect bite (urticaria or hives), he may develop a swelling at the site of the bite. In reality, the dog will seldom have these signs. Instead, he will have a mild to severe itching sensation over his body and maybe a chronic ear infection.

 In addition, allergic dogs will often chew on their feet until they are irritated and red. They may rub their faces on the carpet or couch, or scratch their sides and belly. Because the wax-producing glands of the ear overproduce as a response to the allergy, they get ear infections. Bacteria and yeast often "over grow" in the excessive wax and debris.

 The skin lesions seen in an allergic dog are usually the result of him mutilating his skin through chewing and scratching. Sometimes there is hair loss, which can be patchy or inconsistent over the body leaving a mottled appearance. The skin itself may be dry and crusty, reddened, or oily depending on the dog. It is very common to get secondary bacterial infections of the skin due to these self-inflicted lesions.


 When a dog is allergic to something, his body is reacting to certain molecules called 'allergens.' These allergens may come from:

  • Trees
  • Grass
  • Weed pollens
  • Fabrics such as wool or nylon
  • Rubber and plastic materials
  • Foods and food additives such as individual meats, grains, or colorings
  • Milk products
  • House dust and dust mites
  • Flea bites

The body's response to an allergen

The reason that all these allergens cause itchy skin is that, simplistically, when allergens are inhaled, ingested, or come in contact with the dog's body, they cause the immune system to produce a protein referred to as IgE. This protein then fixes itself to cells called 'tissue mast cells' that are located in the skin. When IgE attaches to these mast cells, it causes the release of various irritating chemicals such as histamine. In dogs, these chemical reactions and cell types occur in appreciable amounts only within the skin.

Genetic factors and time influence allergies

Remember that dogs must be exposed to the allergen for some time before the allergy develops. Exceptions may occur such as an allergy to insect bites, which may develop after only a few exposures. The dog's body must learn to react to the allergen. It is a learned phenomenon of the immune system that is genetically programmed and passed from generation to generation in several breeds. Allergies are especially common in certain terriers such as the Scottish, West Highland White, Cairn, and Wire Haired Fox; Lhasa Apsos; and larger breeds such as the English and Irish Setters, Retrievers, and the Dalmatian. Allergies are also well documented in the Pug, Miniature Schnauzer, and English Bulldog.

In pets, allergies usually start to develop between one and three years of age. They may start as late as age six or eight, but over 80% start earlier. To make matters worse, as the animal ages, he usually develops allergies to additional things and the response to any one allergen becomes more severe.

Diagnosing allergies

Most allergies are the inhalant type and are seasonal (at least at first). The dog may be allergic to a certain tree pollen that is only present in the environment for three weeks out of the year, or the allergy may be to house dust mites which are in the environment year round.

A definitive diagnosis of an allergy and determination of exactly what the animal is allergic to can be made in two ways:

  1. Allergy testing (intradermal or blood testing)
  2. Eliminating things individually from the animal's environment until the culprit is isolated (this method is most often used when food allergies are suspected)

For example, a dog may start chewing his feet, scratching his sides, and rubbing his face on furniture every year for three weeks during the same month. These are often the signs of a seasonal allergy to something such as ragweed or tree pollen. In this case, the veterinarian may choose either tablets and/or a single injection that will suppress the allergy for the 3-4 weeks necessary when that allergen is in the environment. After a short treatment period, the animal is back to normal and only has to wait until the following year when he or she will be returned to the veterinarian with the same problem.

Treating allergies


This can be a very important part of managing atopy. While it may be impossible to completely eliminate all of the offending agents, many can be reduced with minimal effort on the part of the owner. For avoidance therapy to have any benefit, the offending agents must be identified through intradermal skin testing. Avoidance is rarely a complete treatment in itself, but is used in conjunction with other treatments.

Allergen Avoidance Suggestions

House dust

  • Keep pets out of room several hours when vacuuming
  • Change furnace filters regularly

House dust mites

  • Use a plastic cover over pet's bed
  • Wash bedding in very hot water
  • Avoid letting pets sleep on stuffed furniture
  • Avoid stuffed toys
  • Keep pets in uncarpeted rooms
  • Run air conditioner during hot weather
  • Change furnace filters regularly 


  • Keep pets out of basements
  • Keep pets indoors when the lawn is mowed
  • Avoid dusty pet foods
  • Clean and disinfect humidifiers
  • Use dehumidifiers
  • Avoid large numbers of houseplants 


  • Keep dogs out of fields
  • Keep grass cut short
  • Rinse dog's feet off after dog has been outside
  • Keep pets indoors during periods of high pollen counts

Topical therapy

Topical therapy consists of shampoos and rinses and topical anti-itch solutions. Topical therapy offers immediate, but short-term relief. It is often recommended to bathe recommend atopic dogs at least once every two weeks with a hypoallergenic shampoo or colloidal oatmeal shampoo. Hydrocortisone shampoos may also be used. Weekly or even twice weekly shampoos may offer increased relief for some dogs.

In addition to bathing, it is helpful to simply wash off the dog's feet after he comes in from the outside. This will remove any allergens from his feet.

Topical solutions containing hydrocortisone may offer some relief. They are the most practical in treating localized itching. These products are very poorly absorbed into the bloodstream, and when used in moderation, do not create long-term side effects or problems associated with injectable or oral steroids. In addition, cooling salves and lotions may also be used. Care must be taken with these to ensure that they do not make the coat too greasy. Dogs may tend to lick off these preparations. After applying these preparations, it is recommended to get the dog involved in some activity to prevent him from licking the treated area.

Immunotherapy (Hyposensitization)

Immunotherapy has been described as the mainstay of treatment for canine atopy. It is indicated in animals where the avoidance of antigens is impossible, symptoms are present for more than 4 to 6 months out of the year, and fatty acids and antihistamines do not provide satisfactory results.

An animal must undergo intradermal skin testing prior to hyposensitization. After the antigens to which the animal is allergic have been identified through testing, a commercially prepared injection containing the altered antigens is injected into the dog. Depending on the type of product used, a series of weekly or monthly shots are given. The animal then becomes de-sensitized to the offending allergens. Success is as high as 80% with this treatment plan. Treatment is time consuming and requires a dedicated owner and veterinarian. This treatment is an excellent option in severe cases of atopy, especially in young dogs. If you have an allergic pet that is not responding to conventional treatment, seriously consider this as a treatment option.

Omega-3 fatty acids

Fatty acids have been recommended for years to improve coat quality and shine. Recently, new research has shown that certain fatty acids - the omega-3 fatty acids - are also very beneficial in the management of allergies in dogs and cats. Omega-3 fatty acids work in the skin to help reduce the amount and effects of histamine and other chemicals that are released in response to allergies. Not every allergic pet responds to omega-3 fatty acids. Some pets show improvements, others have a complete cure, and others show no change after being on the omega-3 fatty acids. Most pets need to be on the omega-3 fatty acids daily for several weeks to months to notice significant improvement. Omega-3 fatty acids are very safe and have very few side effects. Studies show that when omega-3 fatty acids are used in conjunction with other treatments, such as antihistamines, the use of steroids can often be decreased or discontinued. Be sure to use an omega-3 fatty acid supplement derived from fish oil. Other types of fatty acids (such as omega-6 fatty acids) can actually make some allergies worse. It is often best to use the omega-3 fatty acid supplements in conjunction with a diet lower in fat.


Antihistamines are widely used in both the human and animal medical fields. Most of the antihistamines used in veterinary medicine are antihistamines that were designed for and used primarily by humans. Antihistamines have been shown to be effective in controlling allergies in up to 30% of dogs and 70% of cats. When used as part of a treatment plan including fatty acids and avoidance, the percent of respondents goes much higher.

Every animal will respond differently to each of the different antihistamines. Therefore, several different antihistamines may have to be used before an effective one is found. Every antihistamine has a different dose and risk of side effects. Antihistamines should be used with veterinary guidance. Some common side effects include sedation, hyperactivity, constipation, dry mouth, and decreased appetite. The correct antihistamine given at the proper dose should not cause unwanted side effects. For severely itchy dogs, mild sedation may be a positive and desired side effect.

Antihistamines come in several forms including H1 and H2 blockers. While the H2 blockers (Claritin, Seldane, and Hismanal) have been shown to be very effective in treating human allergies, they have not been shown to be effective in treating canine or feline allergies, and are therefore, not recommended for pet use. There are many different H1 antihistamines available on the market, but veterinary use is usually restricted to the following.


Cyclosporine, in the form of the brand name drug Atopica, is being used very successfully in the treatment of atopy in dogs, especially those with severe allergies. The most common side effects are diarrhea and vomiting. It does not work immediately, but may take 3-4 weeks to see an effect. It t may be used for short periods of time for seasonal allergies, or can be given long-term for year-round atopy.


 Steroids are extremely effective for relieving severe itching and inflammation. The problem is that they can have many short and long-term side effects, if not used correctly. If used correctly, they can be as safe as any other drug that we use. The problem is that they work so well that they are often overused. Because of their potential side effects, they should be used carefully, and at the lowest effective dose. They are usually reserved as one of the last lines of treatments, but if nothing else works, use the steroids.

Steroids are usually administered in one of two forms, injectable and in tablet form. The steroids being discussed here are corticosteroids and are not the anabolic steroids used by body builders. Anabolic steroids are a completely different drug and have no application in treating animal allergies. There are many different forms of corticosteroids currently available on the market. They vary widely in their duration of activity and strength.

Injectable: Injectable forms of steroids include betamethasone, dexamethasone, flumethasone, methylprednisolone, and triamcinolone. These agents are usually given intramuscularly and have between one week and six months duration depending on the product, the dose, and the individual animal.

Steroids can be used effectively and safely, if a careful dosage schedule is followed.

Oral supplementation allows a more accurate and tailored dose, but injectables may be preferred in several situations. Injectables are preferred in animals that are very difficult to give pills to, and in animals that need immediate relief. Once the injection is given, it is impossible to reverse its effects and side effects. With oral administration, if unwanted side effects appear, the product can be discontinued and the side effects will diminish.

Oral: As mentioned earlier, it is much easier to customize an individual dosing program with the tablet form. The affected animal usually begins with daily therapy for a period of three to five days, and then the dose is reduced to every other day dosing. If the animal needs to be treated for more than a couple of weeks, then the dose is halved weekly until a minimum therapeutic level can be established. The goal with all steroids is to use the minimum dose necessary to alleviate the symptoms. By taking this approach, the side effects are eliminated or reduced.

Side Effects: The potential side effects associated with steroid use in dogs are numerous. Side effects can appear with any duration or form of steroid therapy. Each animal responds differently to each type of treatment. However, the number and severity of the side effects are very closely related to dose and duration of treatment. Most of the side effects associated with minimum effective dose short-term therapy are mild and resolve once therapy stops. The most common symptoms include increased water consumption, increased urination, increased appetite (weight gain), depression, hyperactivity, panting, and diarrhea.

Long-term use has the risk of creating more permanent and severe damage. Some high dose, long term side effects include increased incidence of infections, poor hair coat and skin, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus, adrenal suppression, and liver problems. The potential problems can be severe, however, it must be stressed that these side effects are dose dependent. Despite the potential side effects, steroids can be used effectively and safely, if a careful dosage schedule is followed. Still, because of the availability of safer yet effective therapies, steroid use is reserved until all other treatment options have been exhausted. Several studies have shown that if fatty acids and antihistamines are used concurrently with steroids that the amount of steroids needed to offer relief is greatly reduced.

Treatment of concurrent infections

Since bacterial and yeast skin infections are common in dogs with allergies, it is important to treat the infections as well as the atopy. A yeast infection would be treated with an antifungal medication. A skin culture and sensitivity may be performed to best identify which antibiotic to use in the case of bacterial infections. In addition, special shampoos may be helpful to control these infections.

References and Further Reading

Griffin CE. Cyclosporine use in dermatology. In: Bonagura JD, Twedt, DC. Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy XIV. WB Saunders, Philadelphia PA. 2009:386-389.

Rosser EJ. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of atopy. In: Campbell KL. Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice: Dermatology. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, PA. 1999;29(6):1437-1447.

Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE. Skin immune system and allergic skin diseases. In: Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE (eds). Muller & Kirk's Small Animal Dermatology, 6th edition. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia PA 2001:543-666.

Song M. Multi-facet approach offers best results for allergy patients. DVM News Magazine 2003 (April):6-8.

White PD. Atopy. In: Birchard SJ, Sherding RG (eds). Saunders Manual of Small Animal Practice 2nd Edition. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia PA. 2000:339-346.


Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith

Allergic Reactions: Hives (Urticaria) and Swelling of the Face (Angioedema)

Posted on October 5, 2012 at 2:35 AM Comments comments (0)

Hives (urticaria) and a swollen face (angioedema) are typical hypersensitivity (or allergic) reactions to drugs, chemicals, something eaten, or even sunlight.        

What are the symptoms of hives and angioedema?

In hives, small bumps occur within the skin. Often, the hair will stand up over these swellings. Sometimes, they itch. In angioedema, we see swelling of the face, especially the muzzle and around the eyes. Sometimes, the swelling is so severe, the dog cannot open his eyes. Angioedema often results in itching. Facial swelling and hives generally develop within 20 minutes of being exposed to the allergen (substance to which the animal is allergic).

In general, these types of allergic reactions are not life-threatening and will go away by themselves. Rarely, the swelling in angioedema can affect the throat and make breathing difficult. A more severe allergic reaction, called anaphylaxis, is life-threatening, and requires immediate veterinary attention.

How are hives and a swollen face treated?

Antihistamines are generally the best treatment for angioedema and hives. If severe, steroids are sometimes given. If respiration is affected, epinephrine is administered. If your dog has hives or a swollen face, contact your veterinarian, who will advise you about the proper treatment.

Can hives and angioedema be prevented?

In general, there is no way to predict which animals may develop hives or angioedema as a result of exposure to a certain substance. If a dog has already had an allergic reaction, such as anaphylaxis, angioedema or hives, to a substance, the substance should be avoided. If your dog has ever had a reaction to a vaccine or medication, be sure your veterinarian knows and the information is placed in your dog's medical record.

If your dog has ever had an allergic reaction to a vaccine, subsequent vaccinations should be given by your veterinarian. Your veterinarian will probably administer an antihistamine prior to vaccination and have you remain in the office for 20-30 minutes after the vaccination, so you are right there if your pet has a reaction. In some cases, certain vaccines may be excluded from your dog's vaccination regimen, or a different type of vaccine will be used.

Many vaccines contain antibiotics as preservatives. If your dog is allergic to an antibiotic, be sure to check all vaccines for the presence of that antibiotic before use.

If your dog has developed hives or a swollen face from an insect bite, you may want to discuss various options with your veterinarian. Your veterinarian may give you a prescription for an 'epi-pen.' An 'epi-pen' is a special syringe and needle filled with a single dose of epinephrine. If your pet has an anaphylactic reaction or severe angioedema, inject the epinephrine using the 'epi-pen' and seek emergency veterinary assistance immediately. Be sure to take the 'epi-pen' with you on any trips or hikes.


Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith

Allergic and Irritant Contact Dermatitis

Posted on October 5, 2012 at 2:20 AM Comments comments (0)

Allergic contact dermatitis occurs in dogs as a hypersensitivity reaction to certain molecules in the pet's environment. Irritant contact dermatitis results when the skin is exposed to noxious substances in the environment. The symptoms and biologic mechanisms involved in these two diseases are similar so they are often discussed together.

What is allergic contact dermatitis?

Allergic contact dermatitis is a rare disease, which occurs when an animal's skin overreacts to certain small molecules in the environment. Substances, which can cause allergic contact dermatitis include certain antibiotics applied to the skin; metals such as nickel; materials such as rubber or wool; and chemicals such as dyes and carpet deodorizers.

What is irritant contact dermatitis?

Irritant contact dermatitis occurs when the skin is exposed to severely irritating chemicals such as the sap in poison ivy and salt on the road.

How do these two diseases differ?

Allergic contact dermatitis only affects those animals with a hypersensitivity to the molecule. Irritant contact dermatitis would affect every dog that is exposed to the irritant.

Allergic dermatitis requires multiple exposures to the molecule before it develops. It rarely occurs in animals less than two years old. Irritant contact dermatitis often occurs in inquisitive young animals who get into things they should not.

What are the symptoms of allergic and irritant contact dermatitis?

Lesions generally occur on the areas of skin that are sparsely haired and directly exposed to the offending molecules. This often means the back of the paws, abdomen, muzzle, and lips. The affected areas are very red, have small bumps or vesicles (blister-like lesions), and itch. In irritant contact dermatitis ulcers may appear.

How are allergic and irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed?

The history and physical exam can often indicate what is going on. To isolate the allergen (molecule that caused the dermatitis), exclusion trials are often performed. In these trials, the animal is restricted to an uncarpeted room and kept off the grass, for instance. If the animal's condition improves, potential allergens are slowly introduced one by one.

A 'patch' test can also be performed. In this test, a small amount of the allergen is rubbed on the skin, or a gauze pad containing the suspected allergen is bandaged on the pet's skin. The skin is monitored for 2-5 days for a reaction.

How are pets with allergic or irritant contact dermatitis managed?

The key to managing this condition is removing or restricting exposure to the allergen or contact irritant in the pet's environment. If that is not possible, then fatty acids, antihistamines, biotin, and topical shampoos can be used to control the itching.

As a rule, for any pet suspected of having an allergy problem that could include an allergic contact component, we recommend:

  • Glass or stainless steel food and water bowls, cleaned and rinsed well daily
  • Hypoallergenic detergents for the pet's bedding
  • Routine hypoallergenic shampoos for the pet to remove any allergens
  • Restricting walking to sidewalks or paved surfaces - avoid grass


Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith

Tail Docking and Ear Cropping of Dogs are Punishable Offence: AWBI

Posted on September 20, 2011 at 9:50 AM Comments comments (0)

Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) asks The Veterinary Council of India (VCI) and Kennel Clubs to stop promoting this cruel practice with immediate effect

Acting on a petition by Federation of Indian Animal Protection Organizations (FIAPO), the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) has issued an advisory stating that non- therapeutic tail docking and cropping of ears amounts to mutilation and constitutes cruelty to animals and is a punishable offence as per the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960.

The statutory body has directed the veterinary council of India to stop promoting this cruel practice and has asked the Kennel Clubs not to register dogs whose tails have been docked and ears clipped. Tails and ears of 2-5 days old pups of certain breeds such as Boxer, Doberman, Cocker Spaniel, Great Danes etc are cut. Tails of dogs have many useful functions, including maintaining balance and body language. If a tail were not useful to a dog, natural selection would have eliminated it long ago. The fact is that, with very rare exceptions, most breeds of dogs are born with tails. There is considerable scientific evidence that docking can lead to complications, including death of the pup.

Globally, in many countries like Australia, England, France, Netherlands, South Africa and several others, cosmetic docking of tails or cropping ears of dogs is banned. In England and Wales, ear cropping is illegal, and no dog with cropped ears can take part in any Kennel Club event.

We appreciate alertness of Snehal Bhavsar of FIAPO member organization- Gujrat SPCA who brought this issue to our notice. The advisory would not have been in its present shape without persuasion by FIAPO chairperson- Dr. Chinny Krishna (Blue Cross of India ) , FIAPO trusteeNorma Alvares (PFA Goa) and FIAPO Governing board member- Ms.Anjali Sharma (NOIDA SPCA) who continuously pushed the matter with Animal Welfare Board of India chairperson. We highly value sensitivity shown by the AWBI chairperson Gen. R.M.Kharb. A big thanks to our volunteers Helen Christy and Mridu Minocha who gathered information on the antiquated practices and helped us to prepare strong arguments in this case.

This advisory is a significant step forward, which will not only save pups from cosmetic surgeries but will provide AWOs, SPCAs and animal activists the necessary tool for bringing the perpetrators of this practice to book. However, for this advisory to be effective will require AWOs, SPCAs and animal activists to gear up and initiate action against individuals who continue to indulge in these practices. The actions that you as a concerned citizen can take are described below.


How can you help?

Your role will be to spread this news rapidly and extensively with a wider audience such as vets, kennel clubs, animal welfare organizations, media people, animal lovers and general public so that they know about the truth behind cutting tails and ears of 2-5 day old pups. Share this with:


  1. Media people so that it reaches wider audience
  2. Post it on animal related blogs/ websites
  3. Share on facebook page/ twitter accounts
  4. Personally, share this with pet owners, animal lovers, friends and family
  5. Print copy and give to your local veterinarian
  6. Print a copy or forward it to the local SPCA and request them to display it for public to read


If you still find someone continuing to dock tails and/or crop ears, here is what you can do:


  1. File a written complaint against the veterinarian, if you know who he/she is, with Veterinary Council of India at [email protected] ; 011-26184149, 011-26184354. Additionally, AWBI can be informed at [email protected] , so that the AWBI can take up the issue with the Veterinary Council.
  2. Lodge a complaint at the nearest police station, either individually, or through an AWO / SPCA under Sections 428, & 429 of the Indian Penal Code (Section 428, 429, IPC: Mischief by killing or maiming animal ) . Show them the copy of AWBI circular (attached) where tail docking and ear cropping is notified as cruelty to pups.
  3. In the case of extremely obstinate, unreasonable persons who do not see reason, file a complaint in Court under Section 11 of the PCA, preferably through an AWO / SPCA."


Please contact Khushboo Gupta ( [email protected] ) for any clarification or help. Please see below a note on what’s wrong with tail docking and ear cropping.

There is a need for all of us to act as crusaders for animal reforms in India and it will only be possible by putting in joint effort to implement such progressive orders in our individual capacities.Every effort counts and every action will help little pups to escape mutilation!

Click here to know what's wrong with tail docking and ear cropping?




Wound healing- A proper care is required

Posted on August 9, 2011 at 8:50 AM Comments comments (1)

Wounds are the most common cases presented in any veterinary establishment. Wound means any breach in the continuity of the skin and wound healing is restoration in the continuity. The process involves cell regeneration, cell proliferation and collagen production.

A wound can be covered temporarily with bandage until specialized veterinary care is received to avoid gross contamination and mutilation of the area. Generally the area of wound is cleaned, lavaged and hair around the wound should be clipped and shaved, followed be some antiseptic dressing. The dirty or contaminated wounds should not be closed and open drainage is required. In some cases, dressing is done but a drain is kept to allow escape of fluid coming out if the gap is too big, suturing is required, but in some cases with, tissue heals by itself whereas some wounds require delayed suturing. Sometimes necrosed (dead) tissue is present which has to be removed and the edges are freshened (debridement) for healthy healing.

In haemorrhagic wounds the first step is to arrest the bleeding. Similarly in fracture wounds (open fractures), anatomical reconstruction and reduction of fracture and then wound closure should be done. In case of maggoted wounds, which occur by attack of blow flies or by eggs laid by flies on any open wound has to be treated accordingly i.e. removal of maggots. This can be done by applying tincture turpentine locally, which will irritate the maggots and they will come out or apply any spray or ointment containing insecticidal compounds (BHC). In case of burn wounds, the fluid therapy of the patient is of utmost importance as many electrolytes are lost from weeping burn surface along with local application of emollient and antiseptic dressing (e.g. sulphacetamide ointments). Dog bite wounds should be attended with special precaution. Wearing of gloves is essential by anyone who handles the dog. First of all antirabies vaccination (post bite, Day 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60) should be done. A thorough washing of area should be done followed by antiseptic dressing. It should not be sutured as is generally contaminated. Similarly, in all contaminated wounds, suturing is delayed. In case of gunshot wounds, the cartridge has to be removed the position of which can be ascertained by taking radiograph. In case of severe tissue loss, tissue grafting is needed and is a really helpful.

*The line of treatment wounds varies with the cause, type and duration of wound.

In spite of a lot of available options, many a times there is delay in the wound healing or there is formation of an ulcerating wound. Many of the systemic/endogenous and exogenous/environmental factors are involved which can affect the rate of wound healing and strength of the healed tissue.

Anaemia: In anaemia the haemoglobin is less so the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is reduced. Oxygen is required for the cells for respiration the reduction of which leads to delayed wound healing.

Hypoproteinaemia: Wound healing is a process of protein synthesis; less of the protein may lead to delayed wound healing and decreased strength. Methionine and cysteine prevents delayed wound healing and thus be incorporated in diet.

Uraemia: increased blood urea nitrogen delays wound healing. Uraemia causes slow granulation tissue formation and poor quality collagen, the tissue so formed is thus not so strong.

Dehydration and odema: These two factors are involved in wound healing and excess of any of these two can cause a delayed healing.

Diabetes/blood sugar: More of the sugar in the blood has been seen in the humans have seen to delay the wound healing and may be involved in dogs also.

Thyroid: Imbalances in the normal values of thyroid hormone affects wound healing and should be ruled out in case of delayed wound healing.

Infection: Infection local or systemic will delay the wound healing. A good antiseptic dressing should be applied and changed regularly. A systemic antibiotic should be selected based on the type of infection for which antibiotic sensitivity test is helpful.

*A complete blood testing is thus recommended in cases of long standing wounds or ulcerated wounds like blood haemoglobin, total protein, urea nitrogen fasting blood sugar, thyroid and antibiotic sensitivity test (ABST).

Oxygen tension: Oxygen is required for every cell and sometimes a very tight bandage will reduce blood flow to the affected area. So while applying bandage, just observe that your finger can go between skin and bandage but at the same time it should not be too loose.

Temperature: Maximum strength of the healed tissue is attained at 30o C. so it is not good to keep your dog at very less temperature (in Air conditioner) or very high temperature (very hot environment) otherwise the collagen formed will be not very strong.

Cleaning agent: Owners should keep in their mind that the skin of dogs and human are different. The floors at which the dogs are kept are occasionally cleaned with phenol (Phenyl) which is irritating to the dogs and many a times allergic. In addition to this many a times dog owners apply Dettol or Savlon or Human Shampoos to clean their dogs, it is to inform them that you are actually harming your dog. Don’t apply it on your dog as its skin is different from human skin. Apply betadine or just normal saline to clean the wound. You are actually causing harm to your dog. One more thing that I want to tell is about the shampoos being used on the dogs; please use only dog shampoos and not the human ones.

Vitamin E and Zinc: If present in excess, vitamin E will delay wound healing, by slowing collagen formation so should not be given in excess to the dogs. Zinc is required in moderate amount for normal wound healing as it helps in cellular proliferation however, in excess zinc delays wound healing by inhibiting macrophage function (cells involved in combating infection).

Corticosteroid: Dogs are given corticosteroid for their anti inflammatory action but they markedly inhibit growth of the blood vessels and epithelial cells of the affected area. They can thus complicate the wound healing instead of helping. For anti-inflammatory action other suitable drugs can be used, if required (e.g. Serratiopeptidase).

Anticancer drugs: These drugs are cytotoxic (toxic to the cells) and directly affecting all the developing and growing cells of the body and should not be given, until very necessary.

Vitamin C: It is required for the formation of collagen. God quality collagen provides strength to the healing tissue. Vitamin C can be given easily through oral route as palatable tablets are available.

Drugs: Some of the dogs are allergic to some drugs like amino glycosides group of antibiotics and a delay in wound healing is observed, a change of antibiotic may help.

In addition drugs like Aspirin, phenyl-butazone have also been reported to decrease healing.

*History is very important as it can help in identification and removal of involved agent.

Self mutilation: Many a times the dog licks the wounds. They damage the bandage and remove dressing. Here neck collar and Elizabethian collars (, can be very useful as they will restrict the head movement and prevent licking and self mutilation of the area.

Constant irritation: Decubital ulcers or pressure sores develop and do not heal in cases of recumbency in certain diseases (Paralysis, Hind quarter weakness) due to which the wound cannot heal. The pet should be encouraged to stand and if not possible rehabilitation aid should be provided to the animal. Slings can be very useful and may help dog to stand whereas in long standing cases wheel chair/wheel cart (, should be provided as animal can stand and move and the wound dressing can be done very easily. In addition, it will remove constant pressure of dogs own body weight and irritation due to recumbency.

Immobility: Sometimes the wound is near or at the joint which causes constant movement and thus healed tissue will rupture again and again. For this the area should be immobilized, at the same time dressing of the area is also very important, so a splint with a window can be applied for better outcome. Various fore leg and hind leg splints are available which can be beneficial for the pet (,

*Rehabilitation of animal should be instituted as early as possible as it enhances the rate of recovery, wound healing and animal well being.


About Author

Dr. Surbhi Tyagi (PhD  Surgery)

Technical Advisor

Awareness Campaign Cell

Innovation India

[email protected]


Petnapped- Pet Kidnapped!!

Posted on August 2, 2011 at 10:46 AM Comments comments (0)

One minute Badmaash was walking on the road in Gurgaon's DLF Phase III. The next minute she was gone. Her owner Amitabh — who'd been walking a few paces behind her — kept calling for her but the golden retriever just couldn't be found. He spent a troubled night, then began to put up flyers asking people whether they had seen Badmaash. It was an urgent appeal as she was epileptic. Amitabh also got in touch with NGOs which help find homes for lost and abandoned dogs. They told him this was nothing new. Pedigreed dogs keep getting stolen from around the city, they said.

What is behind this spate of dog disappearances? The obvious reason is that they're expensive and can fetch a good price. A pedigreed labrador pup, for example, will sell for as much as Rs 18,000, while a pug — the breed made famous by the Hutch ad — will sell for upto Rs 25,000. A stolen pup will sell for about half as much, a neat sum. According to Gautam Barat, treasurer of the animal NGO Friendicoes, "Dogs nowadays are mostly stolen from areas like Gurgaon and Noida because it's easier to transport them out of the city from the suburbs."

He blames the thefts on the fact that the divide between the rich and the poor is getting wider, and that the people who live in the villages around which these satellite townships sprung up see the pedigreed dogs as valuable possessions which they can sell for a tidy profit if they can lay their hands on them."If a pup is stolen, it is sold," says Barat. "If an adult dog is stolen, he or she is crossed and the litter that ensues is sold."

The police response to the missing dogs is usually a curt "Should we look for missing dogs or missing persons?" This makes it difficult to put a finger on the exact number of thefts that have taken place so far. But dog lovers like Madhu Goyal — who helps find homes for lost and abandoned dogs — says she sends out four to five emails every month saying somebody has lost a dog. Other associations send out a similar number, say people in the industry. Shampa Dasgupta, who helps run, a website that is involved in finding homes for dogs, says the gangs that steal dogs have done their homework. "A neighbourhood is first recced, and the dogs that are targeted are the ones that might be walked without a leash or one that might be walked by a domestic help who seems careless. Then the dog is snatched, usually by two men on a motorcycle."

Source: TOI


Friend indeed: Dogs know when you are smiling

Posted on July 10, 2011 at 9:22 AM Comments comments (0)

Since humans have no tails to wag, they need to look at their best friend for signs they feel happy, scientists say. Researchers at Azabu University in Japan found that dogs have become so attuned to living with humans that they even distinguish a smile, even on the faces of some strangers. Dogs, they said, have an innate ability to recognise each other’s' expressions, but over time they also learned to interpret faces of a completely different species — humans.

For the study, the team trained nine pet dogs using photos of their owners, who were smiling in some of the photos and looking neutral in the others. The dogs were trained to touch their nose to photos of their owner's smiling face. These dogs were then shown photo pairs of smiling and blank-expression faces of unfamiliar people as well as of their owners. When shown photo pairs of either their owner or a stranger who was the same gender as their owner, the dogs selected the smiling faces most of the time, it was found.

Source: TOI

Cruelty to pet may cost Rs 1 Crore in India!

Posted on July 10, 2011 at 9:19 AM Comments comments (3)

Be cruel to your pet or any other animal at your own peril. For, an offender could end up paying up Rs 1 crore as fine or be jailed up to five years. The environment and forests ministry has proposed this hefty fine in this animal welfare bill 2011. For institutions or companies that show cruelty towards animals the penalty could be Rs 25 crore. The proposed bill empowers the centre to fix lines and penalties based on the severity of offence. According to the proposal, the bill will aim to regulate welfare of pets and animals used in performances and for scientific experiments. It would be construed as an offence if you don’t take reasonable steps to ensure that pet gets a suitable environment and diet, protection from pain, suffering and diseases.

Abandoning a pet is among the list of offences that will lead to the wrongdoer paying a hefty fine, according to the proposal by the environment and forests ministry. Keeping animals chained for “unreasonable time”, or keeping it caged in a space that doesnot “permit the animal a reasonable opportunity for movement” would call for invoking the penal clause. “If any person beats, kicks, over-rides, over-drives, over-loads, tortures or otherwise treats any animal so as to subject it to unnecessary pain or suffering or permits such cruelty he or she would be liable for penalty under the act when and if passed by the parliament,” says the provisions in the proposed bill.

Source: TOI

Canine Telepathy? Dogs can read our minds.

Posted on June 12, 2011 at 2:24 AM Comments comments (0)

How do dogs learn to beg for food or behave badly, particularly when they are not paid any attention? It's a combination of specific cues, context and previous experience, says researchers.

How your pet comes to respond to the level of people's attentiveness tells us something about the way dogs think and learn about the human behaviour, says university of Florida's Monique Udell, who conducted the study with her team. their research suggests it is down to a combination of specific cues, context and previous experience, reports the journal Learning and Behaviour.

Recent work has identified a remarkable range of human-like social behaviours including dogs’ ability to respond to human body language, verbal commands, and to attentional states, according to Florida statement.

Udell and team carried out two experiments comparing the performance of pet dogs, shelter dogs and wolves given the opportunity to beg for food from either an attentive person or from a person unable to see the animal.

They showed the first time that wolves, like domestic dogs, are capable of begging successfully for food by approaching the attentive human. This demonstrates that both species have the capacity to behave in accordance with a human's attentional status.

Source: TOI